The eighteenth century saw a drive towards standardizing linguistic conventions that was aided by the increased production of dictionaries and other translation aides in a wide variety of national and regional languages. This corresponded well with the cosmopolitanism of the European enlightenment that saw texts criss-cross cultural and linguistic boundaries. Alternatively, William Pughe's Welsh and English Dictionary reflects the linking of language with romanticism and cultural nationalism during and after the French Revolution. Another theme was the increasing European interest in travel and Eastern culture, particularly the Islamic world, as seen in earlier works such as Castell's Heptaglotton that become standard authorities on language and typography. Other publications such as Fry's Pantographia or John Chamberlayne's Oratio Dominica reproduced numerous languages from this region including Arabic, Hebrew, and Syriac.

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